2 Chronicles 36:17-21
A small remnant of Jews returned to Jerusalem under Zerubbabel, Ezra, and Nehemiah 70 years later, but the great bulk of them remained in Babylon. Over the centuries, most of them eventually migrated elsewhere, many ending up in Russia and eastern Europe.
In a paper published in the seventies, Ernest Martin established that many Chaldeans, after their nation was overthrown by Medo-Persia, migrated first from Babylon to Tyre. When Alexander the Great conquered that area of the world, destroying Tyre and Sidon, the Babylonians then migrated into Italy and Rome, eventually making up a fairly large portion of Italy's population. Undoubtedly, a number of Jews migrated with them.
John W. Ritenbaugh
Where Is the Beast? (Part 2)