The meaning of Genealogy, 8 Part 1 in the Bible
(From International Standard Bible Encyclopedia)
8. Principal Genealogies and Lists:
In the early genealogies the particular strata to which each has been assigned by reconstructive critics is here indicated by J, the Priestly Code (P), etc. The signs "=" or ":" following individual names indicate sonship.
(1) Genesis 4:16-24.—The Cainites (Assigned to P).
Seven generations to Jabal, Jubal and Tubal-cain, explaining the hereditary origin of certain occupations (supposed by many to be a shorter version of chapter 5).
(2) Genesis 4:25,26.—The Sethites (Assigned to J).
(3) Genesis 5:1-32.—The Book of the Generations of Adam (Assigned to the Priestly Code (P), Except Genesis 5:29 J).
Brings the genealogy down to Noah, and gives the chronology to the Flood. The numbers in the Hebrew Massoretic Text, the Samaritan Hebrew, and the Septuagint differ, Massoretic Text aggregating 1,656 years, Samaritan 1,307 years, and Septuagint 2,242 years. Some scholars hold this list to be framed upon that of the ten Babylonian kings given in Berosus, ending with Xisuthrus, the Babylonian Noah. An original primitive tradition, from which both lists are derived, the Hebrew being the nearer, is not impossible. Both the "Cainite" list in Gen. 4 and this "Sethite" list end with three brothers.
(4) Genesis 10:1-32.—The Generations of the Sons of Noah.
"The Table of Nations" (assigned to the Priestly Code (P), Genesis 10:1-7; J, Genesis 10:8-19; the Priestly Code (P), Genesis 10:20; J, Genesis 10:21; the Priestly Code (P), Genesis 10:22; J, Genesis 10:24-30; the Priestly Code (P), Genesis 10:31-32). Found in abridged form in 1Ch. 1:5-24.
I. Japheth = Gomer, Magog, Badai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, Tiras.
1. Gomer = Ashkenaz, Riphath (I Chronicles 1:6, Diphath), Togarmah.
2. Javan = Elisha, Tarshish, Kittim, Dodanim (Rodanim, 1Ch. 17, is probably correct, a "d", having been substituted by a copyist for "r").
II. Ham = Cush, Mizraim, Put, Canaan.
1. Cush = Seba, Havilah, Sibtah, Raamah, Sabteca (Nimrod).
2. Mizraim = Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim, Naphtuhim, Pathrusim, Casluhim (whence the Philis), Caphtorim.
3. Canaan = Zidon (Chronicles, Sidon), Heth; the Jebusite, Amorite, Girgashite, Hivite, Arkite, Sinite, Arvadite, Zemarite, Hittite.
4. Raamah (son of Cush ) = Sheba, Dedan.
III. Elam = Asshur, Arpachshad, Lud, Aramaic
1. Aram = Uz, Hul, Gether, Mash (Chronicles, Meshech).
2. Arpachshad = Shelah = Eber = Peleg, Joktan.
3. Joktan (son of Eber) = Almodad, Sheleph, Hazarmaveth, Jerah, Hadoram, Uzal, Diklah, Obal, Abimael, Sheba, Ophir, Havilah, Jobab.
4. Peleg (son of Eber) = Reu = Serug = Nahor = Terah = Abraham.
Nearly all these names are of peoples, cities or districts. That Noah, Shem, Ham, Japheth, Nahor, Terah, Abraham, Nimrod, and probably Peleg, Reu, Serug, represent actual persons the general tenor of the narrative and the general teaching of Scripture clearly indicate, although many critics consider these also as purely eponymous. The others can mostly be more or less clearly identified ethnographically or geographically. This table represents the nations known to the writer, and in general, although not in all particulars, expresses the ethnographical relationships as far as they are now known to modern research. It follows a partly ethnological, partly geographical scheme, the descendants of Japheth in general representing the Aryan stock settled in Asia Minor, Media, Armenia, Greece, and the islands of the Mediterranean; those of Ham representing the Hamitic races in Ethiopia, Egypt, in Southwest Arabia, and Southern Babylonia. Many modern writers hold that in making "Nimrod" the son of "Cush," the Scripture writer has confused "Cush," the son of Ham, with another "Gush," the Cassei, living near Elam, since the later Babylonians and Assyrians were clearly Semitic in language and racial characteristics. Nevertheless the Scripture statement is accordant with early traditions of a Hamitic settlement of the country (Oannes the fish-god coming out of the Red Sea, etc.), and perhaps also with the fact that the earliest language of Babylonia was non-Sem. The sons of Canaan represent the nations and peoples found by the Hebrews in Palestine, the Phoenicians and the Canaanites. Heth is the great Hittite nation, by language and racial type strikingly non-Sem. Among the sons of Shem, Eber is by many considered eponymous or imaginary, but the hypothesis is not necessary. Most Assyriologists deny the connection of Elam with Shem, the later Elamites being non-Sem; the inscriptions, however, show that the earlier inhabitants up to 2300 BC were Semitic Lud must be the Lydians of Asia Minor, whose manners and older names resemble the Semitic Asia Minor presents a mixture of races as manifold as does Palestine. The sons of Joktan are tribes in Western and Southern Arabia. Havilah is given both as a son of Cush, Hamite, and of Joktan, Semite, perhaps because the district was occupied by a mixed race. It would seem, however, that "begat" or "son of" often represents geographical as well as ethnological relations. And where the classification of the Scripture writer does not accord with the present deliverances of archaeology, it must be remembered that at this distance conclusions drawn from ethnology, philology and archaeology, considering the present incomplete state of these sciences, the kaleidoscopic shifting of races, dynasties and tongues through long periods, and our scanty information, are liable to so many sources of error that dogmatism is precarious. The ancient world possessed a much larger amount of international knowledge than was, until recently, supposed. A writer of 300 BC had a closer range and could have had sources of information much more complete than we possess. On the assumption of the Mosaic authorship, that broad, statesmanlike mind, learned in all the knowledge of the Egyptians, and, clearly, profoundly influenced by Babylonian law and literature, may be credited with considerable breadth of vision and many sources of information. Aside from the question of inspiration, this Table of Nations; for breadth of scope, for inclusiveness (though not touching peoples outside of the life of its writer), for genial broadmindedness, is one of the most remarkable documents in any literature.
(5) Genesis 11:10-27.—The Generations of Shem (assigned to P).
From Shem to Abraham. The list is also chronological, but the versions differ, Massoretic Text making 290 years, from Shem to Abraham, Samaritan Hebrew, 940, and Septuagint 1,070. Septuagint inserts Cainan, 130 years, otherwise agreeing with the Samaritan to the birth of Abraham. Arpachshad may be rendered "the territory of Chesed," i.e. of the Chasdim, Chaldeans. Eber therefore is descended from Arpachshad, Abraham, his descendant, coming from Ur-Chasdim.
(6) Genesis 11:23-26; 22:20-24.—The Children of Nahor (Genesis 11:23-26 P; Genesis 22:20-24 J).
Uz, Buz, Kemuel, etc. These descendants of Abraham's brother probably represent Aramean tribes chiefly East or Northeast of Canaan. Aram may be the ancestor of the Syrians of Damascus. Uz and Buz probably belong to Arabia Petrea, mentioned in Jeremiah 25:23 with the Arabian tribes Dedan and Thema. Chesed in this list probably stands, not for the Chaldeans of Babylonia, but for a related tribe of Northern Syria. In Genesis 10:23 (assigned to P) Uz is the son of Aram, and in Genesis 10:22 Aram is a son of Shem. On the purely tribal hypothesis, this is either a contradiction, or the later statements represent other tribal relationships or subdivisions. Probably other individuals or tribes are indicated. Chronicles does not have this list, it being a side stream.
(7) Genesis 16:15; 21:1-3; 25 (also I Chronicles 1:28-33).—The Sons of Abraham by Sarah, Hagar, Keturah (Genesis 16:15 assigned to P; Genesis 21:1-3 to J, the Priestly Code (P), J, P; Genesis 25:1-6 J; Genesis 25:7-11 P; Genesis 25:11 J; Genesis 25:12-17 P; Genesis 25:18 J; Genesis 25:19-20 P; Genesis 25:21-26 J; Genesis 25:26 P; Genesis 25:27-34 J).
The descendants of Abraham through Hagar and Ishmael represent the Ishmaelite tribes of Arabia living North and Northwest of the Joktanidae, who chiefly peopled Arabia. Twelve princes are named, possibly all sons of Ishmael, perhaps some of them grandsons. The number has seemed "suspicious" as balancing too exactly the twelve tribes of Israel. But twelve is an approved Semitic number, determining not necessarily the sons born, but the "sons" mentioned. The Arabians generally were frequently given the name Ishmaelites, perhaps because of the greater prominence and closer contact of these northern tribes with the Hebrews. The sons of Keturah seem to have been chiefly Arabian tribes, whose locations are unknown. Midian, of the sons of Keturah, is the well-known and powerful tribe in the Arabian desert near the Aelanitic Gulf, bordered by Edom on the Northwest Sheba and Dedan are also mentioned as Cushites (Genesis 10:7). Very likely the tribes extensively intermarried, and could claim descent from both; or were adopted into one or the other family. Sheba was in Southwestern Arabia. Dedan lived near Edom, where the caravan routes to various parts of Arabia converged. Asshurim are of course not Assyrians, but an Arabian tribe, mentioned by the side of Egypt in Minaean inscriptions. While the two sons of Isaac are to be accepted as real persons, their typical character is also unmistakable, the history of the two nations, Israel and Edom, being prefigured in their relations.
(8) Genesis 29:31 through 30:24; 35:16-26. The Children of Jacob (Genesis 29:31-35 Assigned to P; Genesis 30:1-3 JE; Genesis 30:4 P; Gen. 30:4-24 JE; Genesis 35:16-22 JE; Genesis 35:23-26 P).
The account of the parentage, birth and naming of the founders of the twelve tribes; by Leah: Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun (daughter Dinah); by Bilhah: Dan, Naphtali; by Zilpah: Gad, Asher; by Rachel: Joseph, Benjamin. Much modern criticism agrees that these names are purely those of tribes, some of them perhaps derived from persons or places impossible now to trace, but mostly eponymous. Accordingly, these chapters are to be translated as follows. An Arab tribe, Jacob, wanders in Canaan, quarrels with Edom, migrates to Haran, forms alliances with the Aramean clans Rachel, Bilhah, Leah, Zilpah. Rachel and Jacob constitute a new tribe, Joseph. The federation takes the name Jacob. The other allied clans divide into sub-clans, or new clans join them, until Leah has six "sons," Reuben, Simeon, etc.; Zilpah, two; Bilhah, two. Zilpah and Bilhah are "concubines" because inferior members of the federation, or else have a left-handed connection with it. The formation of the new tribe Benjamin broke up the old tribe Rachel, which (who) accordingly "died." Although such are the original facts imbedded in the documents, they are now set in a framework of personal narrative, and were understood as narrative by the first hearers and readers. The history thus constituted is necessarily "an enigma which it is very hard to solve" (Bennett, Genesis, 284), and with almost as many answers as students. For critical purposes it presents a rich field for exploration, analysis and conjecture, but its edificatory value is chiefly found in reading the narratives as personal: a serious and reverent religious romance rounded on facts or legends, whose real value lies in the sidelights it throws on national character and ethical principles, expressed in a naive, vivid, lifelike story, full of suggestion and teaching. This present article, however, proceeds on the Scripture representation of these details and incidents as personal.
The explanations of the names illustrate the Hebrew fondness for assonances, paronomasia, coming from a time when much importance was attached to words and sounds, but need not be considered mere popular etymologies, the Hebrew individual mother being fully capable of them. Neither do they necessarily represent the original etymology, or reason for the name, but may give the pregnant suggestion occurring to the maternal or other imagination.
Leah, "wild cow," is supposed by many to be so called from the "totem" of the "Leah" tribe. Reuben (re'ubhen), original meaning unknown, unless Leah's emotional explanation explains the name, rather than is explained by it: ra'ah be'onyi, "hath looked upon my affliction." Superficially it might be re'u ben, "See, a son," as in the American Revised Version, margin. Others see in the second statement: "My husband will love me," still another etymology, ye'ehdbhani, "will love me." The lover of assonances can find more than one. The tribe is not prominent after Deborah's time. Simeon, considered by some an animal (totem) name, the Arabic sim'u, cross between hyena and wolf, suggests to the mother (or is suggested by that) its likeness to shama', "hear": "Yahweh hath heard." It is not much known after the Conquest. Levi, "adhesion, associate": thought by many a gentilic adjective from Leah, the Leah tribe paragraph excellence; the name is adjectival in form. Leah connects it with yillaweh, "He will join," 'Now will my husband be joined unto me.' A similar allusion is found in Numbers 18:2, Numbers 18:4, there applied to the "joining" of the tribe to Aaron. Judah is associated with the verb hadhah, "praise": "Now will I praise Yahweh." Jacob makes the same suggestion in Genesis 49:8; no other plausible suggestion of the origin of the name can be made. The etymology and origin of Bilhah are unknown. Dan. is associated with danah, "judge": "God hath judged"; no other etymology can be found. Naphtali is derived from niphtal, "wrestle": "I have wrestled," the only discoverable etymology. Zilpah, zilpah, perhaps is "dropping," "drop." Gad, gadh, "fortunate," according to Leah. Gad was the well-known Syrian god of "fortune"; but there is no necessary connection here. Asher, from 'ashar, "happy," 'ashsher, "call happy"; so Leah; no connection with Asshur, Assyrian god. Issachar, from sakhar, "hire," "man of hire": "God hath given me mine hire," also because Leah had "hired" Jacob with her son's mandrakes; a similar allusion in Gen. 49, "a servant under taskwork." Wellhausen would read 'ish-sakhar, "man of (some deity, unknown)." Zebulun, from zebhul, "habitation, dwelling": Leah gives two explanations, the first assigned by critics to Elohist (E) (probably), connecting the name with a root found in Zebediah, Zabdi, etc., "endow": "God hath endowed me with a good dowry"; the second with zabhal, "dwell": "Now will my husband dwell with me." Dinah, like Dan, is from dan, "judge." Supposed by some to be an old tribe of Israel, in some way associated with Dan, possibly a twin division. Rachel is "ewe," hence identified with a "ewe" tribe. Joseph has a twofold suggestion: the first (assigned to E) from acaph, "take away": "God hath taken away my reproach"; the second (assigned to J) from yacaph, "add": "Yahweh will add to me another son." None of these three cases of double explanation would so far exhaust Hebrew maternal imagination as to require the hypothesis of two documents, even though in the last "God" is used in the first suggestion and "Yahweh" in the second. Benjamin is called by Rachel Benoni, "the son of my sorrow," which is supposed to be an old tribal name, perhaps related to Onan, a clan of Judah, or the Benjamite city, Ono, and possibly to the Egyptian On. Benjamin, Jacob's name for him, "son of the right hand," i.e. of happiness, is understood as "son of the south," because originally the southern section of the Joseph tribe. The attempts to trace these names to tribal origins, local allusions, cognate languages, customs and religions have engaged much research and ingenuity, with results exceedingly diverse.
(9) Genesis 36. The Generations of Esau (P).
I. The Descent of the Edomite Chiefs and Clans from Esau through His Three Wives, the Hittite or Canaanite Adah, the Ishmaelite Basemath, and the Horite Oholibamah (Genesis 36:1-19).
The wives' names here differ from the other statements: In Genesis 26:34 and Genesis 28:9 :
1. Judith, daughter of Beeri the Hittite.
2. Bashemath, daughter of Elan, the Hittite.
3. Mahalath, daughter of Ishmael, sister of Nebaioth.
In Gen. 36:
1. Oholibamah, daughter of Anah, daughter of Zibeon, the Hivite.
2. Adah, daughter of Elon the Hittite.
3. Bashemath, daughter of Ishmael, sister of Nebaioth.
It is not necessary to resort to the hypothesis of different traditions. Bashemath and Adah are clearly identical, Esau perhaps having changed the name; as are Mahalath and the Ishmaelite Basemath, a transcriber's error being probably responsible for the change. As to Judith and Oholibamah, Anah is probably a man, identical with Beeri (Genesis 36:24), the son of Zibeon. Both "Hivite" and "Hittite" are apparently errors for "Horite," the difference being in only one consonant. Or "Hittite" may be used as the larger term embracing "Horite." "Edom" (Genesis 36:1, Genesis 36:8, Genesis 36:19) is a personal name; in Genesis 36:9, Genesis 36:43 (Hebrew the American Revised Version, margin) it is national, indicating that to the writer Esau was a person, not an eponym. Nowhere are personal characteristics more vividly and unmistakably portrayed than in the accounts of Jacob and Esau. In these Esauite names are but two compounds of "El" ('el), none of "Jah" (yah).
II. The Aboriginal Leaders or Clans in Edom, Partly Subdued by, Partly Allied with, the Esauites (Genesis 36:20-30).
These are descendants of "Seir the Horite" in seven branches, and in sub-clans. "Seir" looks like an eponym or a personification of the country, as no personal details have been preserved. Among these names are no "El" ('el) or "Jah" (yah) compounds, although they are clearly cognate with the Hebrew. Several close similarities to names in Judah are found, especially the Hezronite. Many animal names, "Aiah," "bird of prey," "Aran," "wild goat," etc.
III. Eight Edomite "Kings" before the Hebrew Monarchy (Genesis 36:31-39).
One 'el compound, "Mehitabel," one ba'al compound. It is to be noted that the "crown" was not hereditary and that the "capital" shifted; the office was elective, or fell into the hands of the local chief who could win it.
IV. A List of Esauite Clan Chiefs; "Dukes" (English Revised), "Chiefs" (American Standard Revised Version); "Sheiks" (Genesis 36:40-43).
Apparently arranged territorially rather than tribally. The names seem used here as either clans or places and should perhaps be read: "the chief of Teman," etc. The original ancestor may have given his name to the clan or district, or obtained it from the district or town.
In general this genealogy of Esau shows the same symmetry and balance which rouses suspicion in some minds: excluding Amalek, the son of the concubine, the tribes number twelve. Amalek and his descendants clearly separated from the other Edomites early and are found historically about Kadesh-barnea, and later roaming from the border of Egypt to North Central Arabia.
(10) Genesis 46:8-27.
(In different form, Num. 26:1-51, and much expanded in parts of 1Ch. 2 through 8; compare Exodus 6:14-16). Jacob's posterity at the descent into Egypt (considered a late addition to P).
A Characteristic Genealogy.
It includes the ideal number of 70 persons, obtained by adding to the 66 mentioned in Genesis 46:26, Jacob, Joseph, Ephraim and Manasseh, the two latter born in Egypt. Septuagint, followed by Stephen (Acts 7:14), reckons 75, adding to Genesis 46:20 the names of three grandsons and two great-grandsons of Joseph, obtained from Numbers 26:29, Numbers 26:35 ff. Some may have been omitted to secure the ideal number so fascinating to the Hebrew mind. It is to be noted that Leah's male descendants are double those of Zilpah, and Rachel's double those of Bilhah, showing the ideal (but not the fictitious) character of the list. The design, also, seems to be to include those descendants of Jacob from whom permanent divisions sprang, even though, like Manasseh and Ephraim and probably Hezron and Hamul, born after the migration, but before Jacob's death. A comparison with the partial parallels also illustrates the corruption of the text, and the difficulty of uniformity in lists of names. The full list follows:
2. Leah's descendants.
A. Reuben = Hanoch, Pallu, Hezron, Carmi.
B. Simeon = Jemuel, Jamin, Ohad, Jachin, Zohar, Shaul.
C. Leui = Gershon, Kohath, Merari.
D. Judah = Er, Onan, Shelah, Perez, Zerah; Perez, Hezron, Hamul.
E. Issachar = Tolah, Puvah, Iob, Shimron.
F. Zebulun = Sered, Elon, Jahleel.
G. Dinah, daughter.
3. Zilpah's descendants, 16.
A. Gad = Ziphion, Haggi, Shuni, Ezbon, Eri, Arodi, Areli.
B. Asher = Imnah, Ishvah, Ishvi, Beriah, Serah (daughter); Beriah = Heber, Malchiel.
4. Rachel's descendants, 14.
A. Joseph = Manasseh, Ephraim.
B. Benjamin = Bela, Becher, Ashbel, Gera, Naaman, Ehi, Rash, Muppim, Huppin, Ard.
5. Bilhah' s descendants, 7.
A. Dan. = Hushim.
B. Naphtali = Jahzeel, Guni, Jezer, Shillem.
The list differs in many respects from those in Numbers and Chronicles, and presents some chronological and other problems. Without entering upon an exhaustive study, a number of names may be touched on.
Carmi, (2A), like the other names in i, might be a gentilic, "the Carmite," like "the Amorite," etc., especially if these names are those of clans, as they are in Numbers, instead of persons, as the Genesis narrative states. A town, "Bethhaccherem," is mentioned in Jeremiah 6:1. But "the vine-dresser" is also a good rendering.
Hezron (2A). Another Hezron is given as a descendant of Judah. This duplication of names is possible in clans; see instances below, but more likely in persons.
Jemuel (2B). Nemuel in Numbers 26:12; I Chronicles 4:24, an easy error in transcription, yodh, and nun, being easily confused. In Numbers, Nemuel is also a Reubenite name.
Jamin (or Jachin) (2B) is Jarib in Chronicles.
Ohad (2B). Not in Numbers or Chronicles.
Zohar (2B) is Zerah in Numbers and Chronicles.
Gershon (2C). In I Chronicles 6:16 Gershom; identified by some with Gershom, son of Moses, on theory that the priestly family of Gershom originally traced its descent to Moses, but its later members were reckoned, not as priests, but as Levites, thus becoming identified with Levi; precarious; its principal foundation being similarity of name and tribe.
Hezron and Hamul (2D) rouse chronological or exegetical difficulties. Pharez (Gen. 33) could not have been old enough at the migration to have two sons; but very possibly Gen. 38 is introduced episodically, not chronologically, and therefore its events may have occurred before those of Gen. 37. Jacob was 130 years old at the descent, making Judah not 42 but 62, and Pharez old enough for sons. And, as suggested above, the writer may have done with Hezron and Hamul as with Ephraim and Manasseh—included them constructively, they having been born in Egypt, but before Jacob's death, belonging therefore to the generation of the migration and so reckoned, especially as they rounded permanent tribal divisions.
Puvah (2E). Puah in I Chronicles 7:1. In Judges 10:1, centuries later, Puah is father of Tola, an illustration of the descent of fathers' names.
Iob (2E) is Jashub (Numbers, Chronicles), the latter probably correct. Septuagint has it here. A copyist, no doubt, omitted the "shin," "sh."
Dinah (2G) is thought by some to be a later insertion, on account of the "awkward Hebrew," "with Dinah." Dinah and Serah as unmarried, and no doubt because of other distinguishing facts, now unknown, are the only women descendants mentioned; married women would not be. On the clan theory of the names, the "Dinah" clan must have disappeared in Egypt, not being found in Number.
Ziphion (3A). Zephon in Numbers, perhaps giving its name to the Gadite city of Zaphon (Joshua 13:27).
Ezbon (3A). Ozni (Numbers 26:16). Possibly Ozni, on Ezbon's death, took his place, rounding a tribal family, like Hezron and Hamul in Judah. Copyist's error unlikely.
Arodi (3A). In Numbers 26:17 Arod.
Ishvah (3B). Omitted in Numbers; perhaps died childless, or his descendants did not constitute a tribal family.
Beriah (3B). Also an Ephraimite (I Chronicles 7:23); a Benjaminite (I Chronicles 8:13, I Chronicles 8:16); a Levite (I Chronicles 23:10-11). The repetition of the name indicates individuals rather than clans; but both the Asherite and Benjamite were heads of families.
Serah (3B), serach, "abundance," not the same name as that of Abraham's wife, sarah, "princess."
Heber (3B), chebher; in I Chronicles 4:18, a clan of Judah; I Chronicles 8:17, of Benjamin. Not the same name as Eber, 'ebher (I Chronicles 5:13; I Chronicles 8:22; and Genesis 10:21).
The Sons of Benjamin.
The three lists, Genesis, Numbers, Chronicles, represent marked divergences, illustrating the corruption of perhaps all three texts. This list illustrates the genealogical method of counting all descendants as sons, though of different generations. It gives Benjamin ten "sons." Numbers 26:38-40 gives five sons, Naaman and Ard being sons of Bela. The Septuagint of our passage gives only three sons, Bela, Becher, Ashbel. I Chronicles 7:6 gives three sons, Bela, Becher, Jediael (Ashbel), and Shuppim and Huppim are Bela's grandsons. Becher is omitted in I Chronicles 8:1, probably through a copyist's error, who took bekher we-'ashbel, for "Becher and Ashbel," bekhoro 'ashbel, "his first-born, Ashbel." Jediael, both by older and newer scholars, is usually, but not with absolute certainty, identified with Ashbel. He may be a later chief. Another explanation is that I Chronicles 7:6 is part of a Zebulunite genealogy which has been transformed into a Benjamite list, Jediael being a remaining Zebulunite "pebble."
Naaman (4B) perhaps appears, by a transcriber's error in I Chronicles 8:2, as Nochach, Nochach for Na'aman. If Nohah is not Naaman, and not (Keil) Shephupham, or a chief who succeeded him, he may have been one who was born after the migration and not needed to make up the seventy.
Gera (4B) in similar fashion may appear in I Chronicles 8:2 as Rapha. If not, Rapha also may be one born after the migration, and did not found a family.
Ehi (4B) is Ahiram (Numbers 26:38); Aharah (I Chronicles 8:1). Ehi probably arises from some copyist omitting the "ram."
Rosh (4B) is not in Numbers or Chronicles. He rounded no family.
Muppim (4B) troubled the scribes greatly. In Numbers 26:39 he is Shephupham, though as compounded in his family name it is Shupham. In I Chronicles 7:12 he is Shuppim, and it is not made clear whether he is a son, or other descendant, of Benjamin. He is apparently called, with Huppim, a son of Ir (Iri), son of Bela. In I Chronicles 8:8 he is catalogued as a son of Bela, as Shephuphan. In old Hebrew mem ("m") and shin ("sh") closely resemble each other. As the "sh" also appears in the gentilic names, it is probably the correct form. The corrupt state of the Chronicler's text especially is apparent, and also the fact that "son" may refer to any male descendant.
Huppim (4B) in Numbers 26:39 is Hupham; in I Chronicles 8:5 is Huram.
Ard (4B) in I Chronicles 8:3 is a son of Bela, Addar, the copyist having transposed "d", and "r", or mistaken one for the other. In Septuagint at Genesis 46:21 Ard is son of Gera, son of Bela.
Hushim (5A), the same in I Chronicles 7:12, is Shuham (Numbers 26:42), by transposition of consonants. Another Hushim is a Benjaminite, son of Aher, but Aher may possibly be a corruption of the numeral "one," it being the Chronicler's frequent habit to add numerals. But see under 21:6, (3), p. 1194.
Jahzeel (5B) is Jahziel in I Chronicles 7:13.
Guni (5B) in I Chronicles 5:15 is also a Gadite name.
Shillem (5B), in I Chronicles 7:13, Shallum, the commoner form.
(11) Exodus 6:14-25 (Assigned to P).—Partial List of Heads of Fathers' Houses of Reuben, Simeon and Levi.
Reuben and Simeon are as in Genesis. Levi follows:
1. Gershon = Libni, Shimei.
A. Amram married Jochebed = Aaron, Moses; Aaron married Elisheba, daughter of Amminadab, sister of Nahshon = Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar, Ithamar; Eleazar married daughter of Putiel = Phinehas.
B. Izhar = Korah, Nepheg, Zichri; Korah, Assir, Elkanah, Abiasaph.
D. Uzziel = Mishael, Elzaphan, Sithri.
3. Merari = Mahli, Mushi.
The interest of the list is partly chronological, but chiefly to illustrate the genealogical place of Aaron and Moses. It probably exhibits the genealogical practice of omitting links, Amaram the father of Moses apparently being several links from Amram the son of Kohath. By Moses' time the Amramites numbered some 2,000 males (Numbers 3:27, etc.). Jochebed (2A) is an instance of Yah in compounds before the Exodus. Putiel (2A) has been considered a partly Egyptian name, Puti or Poti, "devoted to" -El ('el); but probably Hebrew, "afflicted by God." Hebron is often identified with the city. It is also found in I Chronicles 2:42-43, as Judahite.
(12) Numbers 1:5-54; 2:3-29; 7:12 ff.; 10:4 ff.—The Heads of Houses Representing and Leading the Tribes (Assigned to P).
I. Reuben: Elizur, Son of Shedeur.
II. Simeon: Shelumiel, Son of Zurishaddai.
Shelumiel found in Judith.
III. Judah: Nahshon, Son of Amminadab.
Both found also in Exodus 6:23; Ruth 4:9-22; I Chronicles 2:10-12 : Matthew 1:4 : Luke 3:32 (genealogies of Christ).
IV. Issachar: Nethanel, Son of Zuar.
Nethanel, name of nine persons in Chronicles, Nehemiah, Ezra, same as Nathaniel.
V. Zebulun: Eliab, Son of Helon.
Other Eliabs, Numbers 16:1 (Reubenite); I Samuel 16:6 (Jesse's son, Judah).
VI. Joseph: Ephraim: Elishama, Son of Ammihud.
Other Elishamas: II Samuel 5:16 (son of David); Jeremiah 36:12; II Chronicles 17:8. Ammihuds: II Samuel 13:37 m; Numbers 34:20, Numbers 34:28; I Chronicles 9:4 (Judahite).
VII. Joseph: Manasseh: Gamaliel, Son of Pedahzur. New Testament Gamaliel.
VIII. Benjamin: Abidan, Son of Gideoni.
IX. Dan: Ahiezer, Son of Ammishaddai.
Another, I Chronicles 12:3 (Benjamite).
X. Asher: Pagiel, Son of Ochran.
XI. Gad: Eliasaph, Son of Deuel.
Another, Numbers 3:24 (Levite).
XII. Naphtali: Ahira, Son of Enan.
Seven of these names, Amminadab, Ammihud, Abidan, Ahirah, Ahiezer, Eliab, Elishama, are concededly early. The 5 compounded in Shaddai or Zur are said to be of a type found only in P; 9 of the 24 are compounded in 'el, said to be a characteristic of late names. The 'El is postfixed more times, 5, than it is prefixed, 4; also a characteristic of late names. The proportion of compound names is also greater than in the older names; for these and similar reasons (Gray, ICC, "Nu," 6; HPN, 191-211; The Expositor T, September, 1897, 173-90) it is concluded that though several of the names are, and more may be, early, the list is late. But see Ancient Hebrew Tradition, 74, 83 ff., 85 ff., 320. The contention rests largely on the late date of the Priestly Code (P) and of Chronicles. But while fashions in names changed in Hebrew life as elsewhere, in view of the persistence of things oriental, the dating of any particular names is somewhat precarious. They may be anticipations or late survivals of classes of names principally prevalent at the later or earlier date. Two of the names, otherwise unknown, have come to us through Ruth, and indicate a source now unknown to us, from which all the names could have been drawn. The fondness for names in 'el very likely indicates not a late date but an early one. 'El is the Divine name appearing in personal names previous to Moses, succeeded by Jab from Moses and Joshua on. The recurrence of 'el in the time of Ezra and later probably indicates the renewed interest in antiquity as well as the at once wider and narrower outlook brought about by the exile and return. Numerous South Arabian compounds both with the "ilu," "ili" ('el), affixed and prefixed, occur in monuments about 1000 BC (AHT, 81 ff.).
(13) Numbers 3:1-37.—The Family of Aaron, with the "Princes" of Levi.
Adds nothing to list in Exodus 16:16-25 except the Levite "princes."
I. Gershonites: Eliasaph, Son of Lael.
Also a Benjaminite Eliasaph (Numbers 1:14).
II. Kohathites: Elizaphan, Son of Uzziel.
A Zebulunite Elizaphan (Numbers 34:25). Five other Uzziels, Benjamite, Levite, Simeonite.
III. Merarites: Zuriel, Son of Abihail.
A Gadire Abihail (I Chronicles 5:14); also father of Queen Esther; also two women: wife of Abishur (I Chronicles 2:29); wife of Rehoboam (II Chronicles 11:18). Four 'el suffixes, two prefixes.
(14) Numbers 13:4-16.—The Twelve Spies (P).
I. Reuben: Shammua, Son of Jaccur.
Other Shammuas (II Samuel 5:14; I Chronicles 14:4 (David's son); Nehemiah 11:17, Levite; Nehemiah 12:18, priest). Seven other Zaccurs, Simeonites and Levites.
II. Simeon: Shaphat, Son of Hori.
Four other Shaphats, one Gadite, one Judahite; Elisha's father. Hori looks like the national name of the Horites; perhaps Hori or an ancestor had been adopted, through marriage or otherwise.
III. Judah: Caleb, Son of Jephunneh, the Kenizzite (Numbers 32:12; Joshua 14:6,14).
Another Caleb, Chelubai, son of Hezron, brother of Jerahmeel (I Chronicles 2:9). Either as an individual, or as a clan, Caleb seems to be originally of the pre-Israelitish stock in Canaan, absorbed into the tribe of Judah. Perhaps Jephunneh the Kenizzite married a woman of Caleb's (brother of Jerahmeel) household, and to their firstborn was given the name of Caleb, he becoming head of the house and prince of Judah. Another Jephunneh, an Asherite (I Chronicles 7:38).
IV. Issachar: Igal, Son of Joseph.
Other Igals: II Samuel 23:36 (one of David's heroes); I Chronicles 3:22. Note the name of another tribe given to a man of Issachar—Joseph (Numbers 13:7).
V. Ephraim: Hoshea, Son of Nun;
Hoshea, Joshua's early name. Others: I Chronicles 27:20; King Hoshea, II Kings 15:30; Nehemiah 10:23; Hebrew name of prophet Hosea.
VI. Benjamin: Palti, Son of Raphu. See 16 IV.
VII. Zebulun: Gaddiel, Son of Sodi.
VIII. Joseph-Manasseh: Gaddi, Son of Susi.
A Gaddi is in 1 Macc 2:2.
IX. Dan: Ammiel, Son of Gemali.
Another Ammiel (II Samuel 9:4).
X. Asher: Sethur, Son of Michael.
Nine other Michaels, Gadite, Levite, Issacharite, Benjamite, Manassite, Judahite.
XI. Naphtali: Nahbi, Son of Vophsi.
XII. Gad: Geuel, Son of Machi.
Four names in 'el. Nine ending with i; unusual number. The antiquity of the list cannot be readily questioned.
(15) Numbers 26:5-62 (P).—The Heads of Houses at the Second Census.
Related to Num. 1 and 2, and closely follows Gen. 46. The divergences in individual names have been noted under (10). This list adds to
1. Eliab, son of Pallu (also Numbers 16:1, Numbers 16:12).
2. Dathan, Abiram, Nemuel, sons of Eliab.
1. Machir; also Genesis 50:23.
2. Gilead, son of Machir.
3. Iezer (abbreviation for Abiezer), Helek (not in Chronicles), Asriel, Shechem, Shemida, sons of Gilead.
4. Zelophehad, son of Hepher.
5. Mahlah, Noah, Hoglah, Milcah, Tirzah, daughters of Zelophehad.
1. Shuthelah; also I Chronicles 7:21.
3. Tahan (Tahath, I Chronicles 7:20).
4. Eran (Elead, I Chronicles 7:21).
The names of Manasseh's grandsons and great-grandsons are puzzling. Gilead is the district except in Judges 11:1-2, where it is the father of Jephthah. Shechem sounds like the Ephraimite town. Hepher reminds of Gath-Hepher. In Joshua 17:1-2 the six sons of Gilead are described as sons of Manasseh; loosely, it is probable; they are to be understood as descendants. Perhaps the references may be summarized: The family of Machir, the son of Manasseh, conquered Gilead, and took its name therefrom, either as a family or in the person of a son, Gilead, whose six sons founded clans named from or giving names to certain towns or districts.
The daughters of Zelophehad are noted for the interesting case at law they presented, claiming and receiving the inheritance of their father, which by Gray, ICC, "Nu," is considered not historical but a fictitious instance, for the purpose of raising the question, these daughters being clans, and not persons.
Among the sons of Ephraim, Becher has perhaps been misplaced from verse 38, and possibly displaces Bered (I Chronicles 7:20) between Shuthelah and Tahath. It is not found here in the Septuagint. It is possible that an alliance between the Becherites and the Ephraimites caused one portion of the former to be counted with Ephraim and another with Benjamin; or that at different times the clan was allied with the two different tribes. An error in transcription is more probable. Another Shuthelah is found later in the line (I Chronicles 7:21).
(16) Numbers 34:16-28.—Tribal Representatives in the Allotment.
Reuben, Gad, half-Manasseh, omitted because their allotments had already been assigned East of Jordan; Levi, because receiving none. Changing to the order in (10):
I. Reuben: None.
II. Simeon: Shemuel, Son of Ammihud.
Shemuel is Hebrew of Samuel. Another Shemuel is of Issachar, I Chronicles 7:2. Samuel the prophet, a Levite.
III. Judah: Caleb, Son of Jephunneh.
IV. Issachar: Paltiel, Son of Azzan.
Another Paltiel, otherwise Palti, David's wife Michal's temporary husband (II Samuel 3:15). Another Benjamite spy (Numbers 13:9).
V. Zebulun: Elizaphan, Son of Parnach.
Another Elizaphan, Kohathite Levite (Exodus 6:18, Exodus 6:22).
VI. Gad: None.
VII. Asher: Ahihud, Son of Shelomi.
Another Ahihud, Benjamite (I Chronicles 8:7).
VIII. Joseph-Ephraim: Kemuel, Son of Shiftan.
Another Kemuel, son of Nahor, an Aramean chief (Genesis 22:21); also Levite of David's time (I Chronicles 27:17).
IX. Joseph-Manasseh: Hanniel, Son of Ephod.
Hanniel, also an Asherite (I Chronicles 7:39).
X. Benjamin: Elidad, Son of Chislon.
XI. Dan: Bukki, Son of Jogli.
Bukki, abbreviation of Bukkiah; another, in high-priestly line of Phinehas (I Chronicles 6:5, I Chronicles 6:51).
XII. Naphtali: Pedahel, Son of Ammihud.
A Simeonite Ammihud above.
Seven "El" names, only one "Jah."
(17) Ruth 4:20.—The Ancestry of David (Perez: Hezron: Ram: Amminadab: Nahshon: Salmon (Salmah): Boaz: Obed: Jesse: David).
Contained unchanged in I Chronicles 2:9-15; also Matthew 1:1-6; also Luke 3:32. Some links have been omitted between Obed and Jesse. Salmon might be traced to the ancestor of the Bethlehemite (I Chronicles 2:51, I Chronicles 2:54), who is, however, of Caleb's line, not Ram's; but the lines may mingle.
(18) II Samuel 3:2-5; II Samuel 5:14-15. David's children (also in I Chronicles 3:1-9; I Chronicles 14:4-7).
I. Born in Hebron: Amnon, Chileab, Absalom, Adonijah, Shephatiah, Ithream.
II. Born in Jerusalem: Shammua, Shobab, Nathan, Solomon, Ibhar, Elishua, Nepheg, Japhia, Elishama, Eliada, Eliphelet.
Four names in 'el, all prefixed. Two in "Jah." Chileab is Daniel in I Chronicles 3:1; uncertain which is right, but probably Daniel is a corruption. Chronicles adds Nogah to the Jerusalem sons, probably developed in transcription. I Chronicles 3:6-8 has two Eliphelets; I Chronicles 14:6 has Elpalet in place of the first; more probable. This gives David 6 sons in Hebron, and, if both Nogah and Elpalet be correct, 12 in Jerusalem. Eliada is Beeliada in I Chronicles 14:7, perhaps the original form, a relic of the time before the Hebrews turned against the use of Baal, "lord," as applied to Yahweh; in which case Baaliada, "Lord knows," was changed to Eliada, "God knows." I Chronicles 3:6 reads Elishama for Elishua. Japhia is also the name of a king of Lachish in Joshua's time (Joshua 10:3-7).
(19) II Samuel 23 (also 1 Chronicals 11:11-41).—David's Knights.
1. Josheb-bashebeth, the Tahchemonite.
In Chronicles it is Jashobeam, and should read Ishbaal, the writer's religious horror of Baal leading him to substitute the consonants of bosheth, "shame," as in Mephibosheth, Ishbosheth. Septuagint has Iesebada (Codex Vaticanus), Iessebadal, Isbaam (Codex Alexandrinus), in Chronicles, and Iebosthe (Codex Vaticanus), Iebosthai (Codex Alexandrinus) here. In Chronicles he is a Hachmonite, probably correct. "Adino the Heznite" is probably a corruption for "He wielded his spear" (Chronicles).
2. Eleazar, Son of Dodai, the Ahohite.
Dodo in Chronicles; 8 other Eleazars in the Old Testament. Another Dodo is father of Elhanan.
3. Shammah, Son of Agee, a Hararite.
Omitted by Chronicles. Three other Shammahs, one of them a knight of David. "Harari" may be "mountaineer," or "inhabitant of the village Harar."
4. Abishai, Son of Zeruiah, Brother of Joab.
Abshai (I Chronicles 18:12 margin). Zeruiah perhaps David's half-sister (II Samuel 17:25). Father never mentioned.
5. Benaiah, Son of Jehoaida of Kabzeel.
Eleven other Old Testament Benaiahs, one of them also a knight. This Benaiah succeeded Joab as commander-in-chief, 4 other Jehoiadas, one Benaiah's grandson, high in David's counsel, unless a scribe has inverted the order in I Chronicles 27:34, which should then read Benaiah, son of Jehoiada.
6. Asahel, Brother of Joab.
Three other Asahels.
7. Elhanan, Son of Dodo of Bethlehem.
Another Elhanan, slayer of the brother of Goliath (II Samuel 21:19; I Chronicles 20:5). Perhaps the same.
8. Shammah the Harodite.
Chronicals, Shammoth. From Harod, near Gideon's well (Judges 7:1).
9. Elika the Harodite.
10. Helez the Paltite.
Paltite perhaps local or family name from Pelet, or Palti.
11. Ira, Son of Ikkesh the Tekoite.
Two others, one a knight. Tekoah, Judaite town, home of Amos, etc.
12. Abiezer the Anathothite.
One other, a Manassite (Joshua 17:2). Anathoth an hour Northeast of Jerusalem, Jeremiah's town.
13. Mebunnai the Hushathite.
Should read, with Chronicles, Sibbecai.
14. Zalmon the Ahohite.
Zalmon, also name of mountain (Judges 9:48). Descendant of Ahoah, Benjamite of Bela's line. See I Chronicles 8:14.
15. Maharai the Netophathite.
From Netophah, town.
16. Heleb, Son of Baanah.
I Chronicles 11:30, Heled. Three other Bannabs.
17. Ittai, Son of Ribai of Gibeah of the Children of Benjamin.
I Chronicles 11:31, Ithai. An Ittai of Gath also followed David.
18. Benaiah a Pirathonite.
Pirathon, Amalekite town in Ephraimite territory.
19. Hiddai of the Brooks of Gnash.
Chronicles, Hurai ("d" for "r"). Ga'ash, a Wady in Ephraim.
20. Abi-albon the Arbathite.
Chronicles, Abiel, perhaps corrupted from Abi-Baal; from Beth-arabah, Judah or Benjamin.
21. Azmaveth the Barhumite.
Three others, and a Judaite town, of the same name. Baharumite; Chronicles, Barhumite, a Benjamite town.
22. Eliahba the Shaalbonite.
Shaalbon, a Danite town.
23. The Sons of Jashen (better, Hashem).
Chronicles, "the sons of Hashem the Gizonite." "Sons of" looks like a scribal error, or interpolation, perhaps a repetition of "bni" in "Shaalboni" above.
24. Jonathan, Son of Shammah the Hararite.
Chronicles adds, "the son of Shagee the Hararite." Shagee should perhaps be Agee (II Samuel 23:11); but Septuagint indicates Shammah here; both Samuel and Chronicles should read "J., son of Shammah the Ararite."
25. Ahiam, Son of Sharar the Ararite.
Chronicles, Sacar the Hararite. Sacar is supported by Septuagint.
26. Eliphelet, Son of Ahasvai, the Son of the Maacathite.
Chronicles has "Eliphal, son of Ur," and adds "Hepher the Mecherathite." Both texts are corrupt. Chronicles should perhaps read, "Eliphelet the son of ...., the Maacathite, Eliam," etc.
27. Eliham, Son of Ahithophel the Gilonite.
Eliham, possibly father of Bathsheba. Ahithophel, David's counselor. Gilonite, native of Giloh.
27a. Ahijah the Pelonite (in Chronicals but Not Samuel).
Seven other Ahijahs. Pelonite uncertain, probably a corruption; perhaps inserted by a scribe who could not decipher his "copy," and means "such and such a one," as in I Samuel 21:2.
28. Hezro (Hezrai) the Carmelite.
A scribe confused the Hebrew letters, waw ("w") and yod ("y"). Carmel, near Hebron.
29. Paarai the Arbite.
Chronicles, "Naarai, son of Esbai." Uncertain. Arb, a town of Judah.
30. Igal, Son of Nathan of Zobah.
Chronicles, Joel, brother of Nathan. Igal less common than Joel, hence, more likely to be corrupted; 2 other Igals; 12 other Joels; 5 other Nathans.
30a. Mibhar, Son of Hagri (Chronicles, not Samuel).
Text uncertain as between this and 31.
31. Bani the Gadite (Omitted in Chronicles).
Possibly the Gerarite.
32. Zelek the Ammonite.
Ammon East of Jordan and upper Jabbok.
33. Naharai the Beerothite, Armor-bearer to Joab, Son of Zeruiah.
Beeroth, Benjamite town.
34. Ira the Ithrite.
Ithrites, a family of Kiriath-jearim, Judah.
35. Gareb the Ithrite.
Gareb also a hill West of Jerusalem.
36. Uriah the Hittite.
Bathsheba's husband; 3 others. From some Hittite town surrounded by Israel at the Conquest.
37. Zabad, Son of Ahlai (Perhaps Dropped out of Samuel), Chronicles.
Chronicles adds 13 others. The filling of vacancies makes the number 37 instead of 30. Two names, perhaps, in ba'al, 5 in yah, 7 in 'el. As far as guessable, 5 from Judah, 3 from Benjamin, 2 from Ephraim, 1 from Dan, 1 from Issachar, 1 Ammonite, 1 Hittite, 2 (or 4) Hararites, 2 Harodites, 2 Ithrites.
(20) I Kings 4:1-19.—Solomon's "Princes" and Commissaries.
Eleven princes, 12 officers. No mention of their tribal connections; assigned only partly by tribal bounds. 7 yah names, 1 'el; 5 of the officers are prefixed ben as if their own names had dropped out.
(21) 1 Chronicals 1-9.—Genealogies, with Geographical and Historical Notices.
By far the largest body of genealogical material, illustrating most fully the problems and difficulties. The estimate of its value depends on the estimate of the Chronicler's date, purpose, equipment, ethical and mental qualities. He uses freely all previous Old Testament matter, and must have had in hand family or tribal songs, traditions; genealogical registers, as mentioned in Ezra 2:61-69; Nehemiah 7:63-65; local traditions; official genealogies, such as "the genealogies reckoned in the days of Jotham king of Judah, and .... Jeroboam king of Israel" (I Chronicles 5:17); prophetic, historical and other matter now lost, "the words of Shemaiah .... after the manner of genealogies" (II Chronicles 12:15), and elsewhere. The results of David's census seem to have been in his hands (I Chronicles 27:24). Curtis (ICC, "Chronicles," 528) suggests that his purpose was partly to provide genealogies for contemporary families, implying an accommodating insertion of names "after the manner of genealogies" today. Two main purposes, however, seem clear: the first historical, to give the historical and personal basis and setting to elucidate the Chronicler's main thesis, that national prosperity depended upon, and national character was measured by, fidelity to the law of God, especially as it centered upon the worship and services of Yahweh's house. To do this it was necessary to trace the descent of the prominent characters, families, tribes. Hence, the space given to Judah, Levi, Benjamin, the main line of fidelity, the survival of the fittest. The other purpose was to conserve purity of blood in the restored nation, to include all who were entitled and to exclude all who were not. We may also credit him with such regard for his material that he preserved it all (with certain comprehensible exceptions), even though extremely fragmentary here and there. His materials are of many degrees of age. It is thought by some that the antiquity is indicated by the last stage in the descent, the genealogy of Sheshun, e.g. ending with Hezekiah's time; Heman's and Asaph's (I Chronicles 6:33) in David's. Name-study and historico-literary criticism seeks still other marks of relative age. The text has suffered much, as lists of names will, from scribal errors. Details of his method will be pointed out in the following analysis. As in this whole article, space forbids exhaustive treatment of the endless textual, critical, historical questions arising. A few illustrative cases only are given.
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